Green’s Dictionary of Slang News

Update of 1 February 2019

 

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Welcome to the ninth and latest update to the online version of Green’s Dictionary of Slang.

As ever, some statistics: research over the last three months has added 227 new slang terms, 117 entries have been predated as to their currently recorded ‘first use’ and 1,861 new citations – including ante-dates, inter-dates and post-dates to reflect the continuing use of many terms –  have been uploaded. The database currently offers 55,159 headwords (within which are nested over 133,000 discrete words and phrases, underpinned by approximately 640,000 citations). All this material is on offer to every user. If the volume of new material is somewhat smaller than usual, I can only plead an alternative priority: the writing of a book on women and slang, which should be published later this year.

For an overview, with the fruits of the last quarter’s research in chronological order, all users of the dictionary can go here. This uses the same software as the Timelines of Slang. As usual the research has focused largely on newspaper databases, notably that held by the British Library, the US Library of Congress and, for Australia, Trove. These, by their nature, tend to look backwards in time, but there is also an on-going accretion of up-to-date slang. For the cutting edge, more terms from London drill music have been added, and, going back in time, there are examples from the early 20th century Australian Lone Hand, a literary magazine, spun off the Sydney Bulletin, which equated itself with London’s Strand Magazine. More recent Oz-isms are delivered thanks to the memoirs of Nick Cummins, better known to fans of Aussie Rules as ‘The Honey Badger’ and Tracey Spicer, a journalist and author of The Good Girl Stripped Bare. Finally there is a substantial input from the UK music hall, quoting from songs by such as Marie Lloyd, Bessie Bellwood and Harry Champion.

New terms are marked in red, ante-dates in blue. The format has been improved: entries now link to the specific part of an entry, its sense and where pertinent its homonym number. Unfortunately the software does not permit click-through access (this is in development) , but users will be able to see at once which part of an entry has improved.

The Slang Canon

We lack, or I certainly cannot track one down, a patron saint of lexicography. Let alone, to fine-tune, some similar figure standing guard over slang. Kory Stamper, the former doyenne of Merriam Webster, the American dictionary publisher, claimed Samuel Johnson for the former but given the eponymous Noah Webster’s disdain for the Great Cham, this seems something of a stretch. In any case, this is – in OED terms – only definition 2 of the term: ‘a person who typifies or is a prime exemplar of something.’ What I’m after is definition 1.: an actual saint, glorified by the authorities who do that sort of thing, and as such ‘chosen or regarded as a protector or intercessor for a person, place, occupation, etc.’ And nothing, I fear is doing. Which is a pity, since slang, surely, could come up with a decent advocatus diaboli.

 

Which is also a pity because of those of us who toil in the very lowest depths of what Johnson termed ‘the lower employments’ of the life lexicographical definitely need a bit of tutelary supervision. We are not helped, of course, by our own use of the word saint: Pierce Egan, revising Francis Grose’s Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue in 1823, defines the word as ‘a hypocrite’. This is hardly courting support.

 

Indeed, none of slang’s uses of ‘saint’ are very flattering. St Bernard: a very large, hairy penis (St Peter is a penis too, but seemingly of average dimensions); St George: sexual intercourse in the rear-entry position or with the woman on top and giving the phrase ‘ride a St George’ wherein the superior female is, of course ‘the dragon’. Sex is also found in Sallenger’s Round, properly ‘St Leger’s round,’ which was a dance and thus, like many ‘dances’ adapted as a name for fucking;  St Luke’s bird is an ox and St Marget’s ale water. Rhyming slang gives St Martin’s (le Grand), a hand, St Vitus’s dance, pants or trousers and St Louis blues, shoes. St Louis flats are also shoes: flat and moccasin-like, with a design on the toe – often that of a card suit – and once popular among jazz musicians and gamblers. Others of slang’s canonized notabilities are St Johnstone’s tippet, a hangman’s noose, a St John’s Wood dona, an up-market prostitute or kept woman (the London suburb being their residence of choice) and St Peter’s sons, petty thieves, who take anything they can lay their hands on.

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GREEN’S DICTIONARY OF SLANG TO GO FREE

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GDoS Online was launched two years ago, in October 2016. Since then there have been seven updates,  the latest is forthcoming at the end of this month, and the dictionary has been expanded, improved and, not least corrected. There are now just over 55,000 headwords, within which can be found nested, i.e. included at the primary noun, verb and sometimes adjective:

1,278 derivatives

18,776 compounds

19,880 phrases

All of which are backed up by 640,451 illustrative citations.

My initial aim was to offer the dictionary in two formats: one would be free and permitted users to see A [the word, its compounds, phrases and derivatives, plus all pertinent senses] + B [an etymology] and C [a definition]. For those who were willing to pay a subscription there would also be D [the illustrative citations that show a term’s historical development]. An update, including both new terms of slang (whether from the past or present) and new citations (which meant that subject to research the much-desired ‘first recorded use’ of a given term would be continually shifted backwards) was to be added every three months.

In the two years that the dictionary has been on line there have been added:

2,215 new slang words and phrases

3,045 ante-dates, i.e.  earlier examples of first recorded use

19,947 new citations

Two years into the project, and having no intention to abandon my researches, I have decided that the dictionary in its entirety – headwords, etymologies, definitions and citations – will henceforth be made available for free. I am grateful to those who have subscribed, and for those who wish, I shall repay whatever sums are outstanding as of the relaunch. I would ask only for a little time, since the new system must first be up and running. Your subscription will continue as is until then.

Thanks too to everyone who has supported the on-going research. Please continue. All suggestions, as they say, very gratefully received.

It is intended that this change, plus the latest update, be released on 5 November.  This date may not resound with non-UK users, but elucidation can be found here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guy_Fawkes_Night.

The precise method of logging on will be explained once the relaunch is ready. It is hoped that the same URL will remain.

Some users might feel that there remains one question: why?

There are a number of practical reasons, mainly to do with administration, an area of expertise that has never traditionally appealed to lexicographers but which over-excites the various authorities who demand it. Those, however, are secondary.

What makes GDoS different from any other published slang dictionary is the range of citations, the usage examples. Researching these, finding new material, pushing back our knowledge of the first appearance of a term (and that pushing back is infinitely flexible, the only constant being that ‘back’ is almost certainly on offer to the searcher) has always been at the heart of the dictionary. Not everyone needs such material on every occasion, but it seems to me that everyone should have the opportunity to consult it. This will now be possible.

In an ideal or perhaps older world, the work might have gained institutional backing, the usual means being a publisher. But I have come long since to accept that no publisher, even including the one who (reluctantly, as they made clear) put out the print edition in 2010, feels that the work is of value or worth. No matter; death will see me off, dismissal will not. I have no choice but to continue alone and in so doing, what truly matters is visibility.

So ego, of course, enters the picture: one does the work, one wishes it to be seen and used. Otherwise one becomes nothing more than an ever-older old man, sitting in a small room, tracking down new words for, inter alia, masturbation.

When the print version appeared, a reviewer was kind enough to declare the work ‘Quite simply the best historical dictionary of English slang there is, ever has been […] or is ever likely to be.’ I am no longer responsible for proving the first half of that encomium, I am very keen to justify the second.

Jonathon Green aka Mister Slang

IMPORTANT NOTICE ABOUT SUBSCRIPTIONS

UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE GREEN’S DICTIONARY OF SLANG WILL NOT BE ABLE TO ACCEPT NEW SUBSCRIPTIONS. YOUR CURRENT SUBSCRIPTIONS WILL BE HONOURED. FURTHER INFORMATION WILL BE POSTED AS SOON AS POSSIBLE.

GDoS Update #7: 31 July 2018

Welcome to the seventh and latest update to the online version of Green’s Dictionary of Slang.

 

As ever, some statistics: research over the last three months has added 311 new slang terms, 319 entries have been predated as to their currently recorded ‘first use’ and 2,839 new citations – including ante-dates, inter-dates and post-dates to reflect the continuing use of many terms –  have been uploaded. The database currently offers 55,003 headwords (within which are nested over 133,000 discrete words and phrases, underpinned by approximately 630,000 citations). All of this new material can be seen by subscribers; the changes that are reflected by the predates  are also shown in alterations in the approximate dating used in the absence of citations: for instance ‘late 19C’ to ‘early 19C’, ‘1980s+’ back to ‘1940s+’, and so on. But as ever, for those who want or need to access the detailed and continually evolving and expanding heart of the data, we have to recommend a subscription.

 

For an overview, with the fruits of the last quarter’s research in chronological order, all users of the dictionary can go here. This uses the same software as the Timelines of Slang. As usual the research has focused largely on newspaper databases, notably that held by the British Library, the US Library of Congress and, for Australia, Trove. These, by their nature, tend to look backwards in time, but there is also an on-going accretion of up-to-date slang. Thus there are also a substantial number of terms from UK drill music, state of the art as regards London slang, and, to go back to the other end of slang’s history, some 17th century pamphleteering, often credited to women authors.

 

New terms are marked in red, ante-dates in blue. The format has been improved: entries now link to the specific part of an entry, its sense and where pertinent its homonym number. Unfortunately the software does not permit click-through access (this is in development) , but users will be able to see which part of an entry has improved.

 

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April 2018 Update + Hero of Slang 8: Billy Rowe

Welcome to the sixth and latest update to the online version of Green’s Dictionary of Slang.

 

As ever, some statistics: research over the last three months has added 301 new slang terms, 377 entries have been predated as to their currently recorded ‘first use’ and 2,775 new citations – including ante-dates, inter-dates and post-dates to reflect the continuing use of many terms –  have been uploaded. The database currently offers 54,873 headwords (within which are nested over 133,000 discrete words and phrases, underpinned by approximately 630,000 citations). All of this new material can be seen by subscribers; the changes that are reflected by the predates  are also shown in alterations in the approximate dating used in the absence of citations: for instance ‘late 19C’ to ‘early 19C’, ‘1980s+’ back to ‘1940s+’, and so on. But as ever, for those who want or need to access the detailed and continually evolving and expanding heart of the data, we have to recommend a subscription.

 

For an overview, with the fruits of the last quarter’s research in chronological order, all users of the dictionary can go here. This uses the same software as the Timelines of Slang. As usual the research has focused largely on newspaper databases, notably that held by the British Library, the US Library of Congress and, for Australia, Trove. These, by their nature, tend to look backwards in time, but there is also an on-going accretion of up-to-date slang.

 

New terms are marked in red, ante-dates in blue. The format has been improved: entries now link to the specific part of an entry, its sense and where pertinent its homonym number. Unfortunately the software does not permit click-through access (this is in development) , but users will be able to see which part of an entry has improved.

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Loveless in Slangland

In honour (?) of Valentine’s Day, I offer another slightly amended wander down the primrose path I trod with The Dabbler five years or so ago. The piece, as originally titled, was named ‘No Words for Love in Slang’. Well, no hearts and flowers, anyway. Please read on:

 

For those who wish cross-reference to GDoS, all combinations with ‘love’ can be found here unless otherwise noted.

 

I tried to write a musical once. I had lunched well, couldn’t face the database and it served to counterfeit work. It was called – goodness, how did you guess – Slang! I forget the plot – which is always the problem: I can sketch the puppets but can never make them dance – and it came to nothing. I composed, well, doodled, what I laughingly termed some lyrics. There was only one that was passable. It was called ‘There’s No Word for “Love” in Slang’. As I recall, the hero (poor, honest and resolutely foul-mouthed) sang it on his way to meet the heroine (rich, daughter of a grasping, snobbish papa, and forbidden on pain of disinheritance any non-standard syllables). You can see why I didn’t finish it. But the song title was correct. Because there isn’t.

 

Valentine’s Day comes every year and may bring many a surprise (not least its definitions in slang), but one thing is wholly predictable: no troths will have been plighted on behalf of the counter-language. Slang remembers the unfortunate Valentine’s end: one does not attain martyrdom without…being martyred. So too the concept of ‘love’ at the vocabulary’s hands. Of course, if one searches for ‘love’ as a headword, one finds several. Though none, I would note, a verb. There is love as in ‘love of a…’ which is a term of praise kindred to duck, as in ‘duck of …’ and tends to apply to small children or else items of clothing: hats, dresses, although Walter, he of that multi-volumed stroke book My Secret Life, recalls how, on holiday, his hosts offered to ‘get me a love of an Italian boy to bugger.’ And there is the cry of Lord love a duck! which combines them. But it should surprise no-one that love is usually found in compounds, and that in the bulk of those compounds the word is substituting for ‘sex’. Thus these, for the penis, which of which at least some seem to have escaped from heavy metal, or at least a Spinal Tap tribute band: love bone, love dart, love gun, love hammer, love muscle, love pump, love rod, love staff, lovesteak, love stick, love torpedo, love truncheon and love warrior  (Not mention corporal love, which fleshy non-com ‘stands to attention’). If one has one genital than one must have its opposite number. Here it is: the love box, love canal, love crack, love flesh, love glove, love hole, love lane (and thus take a turn on Love Lane or on Mount Pleasant, to have sex), lovelips, love’s cabinet, love seat and the love shack which can equally efficiently multitask as the place a man keeps for seductions and as an object of sexual desire (who can also, lord help them, be a love muffin) and conquest. The fountain or treasury of love work too.

 

Nor are we done with the licentious list: love apples, grenades and spuds are testicles; the love button is the clitoris, love rug the female pubic hair, love custard and love juice semen, and the love envelope, a condom. Love handles (the idea being that one can hold on to them during sex) represent the excess flesh around a portly stomach that may be seen in a kinder light by those who appreciate the Rubensesque figure. There is the love bug, which in this context stands for VD rather than VW, as in Hollywood’s twee Herbie. And, how could we forget, the love machine is a what an older synonymy termed the ‘town bull.’

 

Love’s lexis is not all sexual. There are always the drugs: a love affair (punning on slang’s nicknames) is a speedball, i.e. a mixture of heroin (‘boy’) and cocaine (‘girl’). The love drug, plain and simple, is MDMA or Ecstasy, love weed marijuana and pure love LSD. Love curls represented a hairstyle in which the hair is cut short and worn low over the forehead, love-pot a drunkard. Perhaps slang’s take is best summed up in love letter, an American usage of the 1940s defined either as a bullet or as some form of hard projectile thrown at a human target. And for the love of Mike! (who can also be Heaven! holy Buddha! Jupiter! Michael Angelo! Moses! Pete (and Alf)! Peter the hermit! and Polly Simpkins!) is an exclamation of exasperation or surprise.

 

One can expand the search, but can one render the definitions more affectionate? No. Love and kisses, rhyming on ‘the missus’ at least suggests a tinge of harmony, but love and marriage, as ordained by a number of crooners, is merely a carriage, while other rhymes offer love and hate (weight), God-love-her (one’s mother) and light of love (a prison governor), and never forget that this last, un-rhymed, means a whore.

 

Last chance: definitions containing ‘love’. Excluding those that include ‘affair’. Slang resists moderation and passion, even obsession are the rule. Not much improvement here. Do one’s balls on, busted on, collared on, dead set on, daffy, dotty, doughy, drop one’s ovaries (a gay term as it happens, at least in South Africa), fall for, have it for, hung up on, gone a million, nuts on, potty about, snowed over, soft on, spoons on, stuck on, go turtles on (‘turtle dove’ = love) and wrapped. Is it me, or do other also fail to hear much in the way of hearts and flowers? Half of them, after all, are synonyms for ‘mad’. As for sugar on and sweet on, it is not merely my diabetes that shudders.

 

I give up. Slang and love use single beds, or draw a line with what used to be known as the Dutch wife, i.e. a bolster (though modern use has redefined the compound as a blow-up ‘love doll’). I gave up the musical too. Let it not be said, however, that my creative fantasies are at an end. I see…the hard-boiled slang lexicographer. ‘They call me Lex, lady, Lex Argot. Argot’s the name — etymology’s my game’. No guns, just a vast and heavy book. And maybe the cute and of course a sassy lesbian mixed-race sidekick, who speaks only in Multi-ethnic London English. Or rhyming slang. ‘There are 130,000 words in the naked dictionary: this has not really been one of them.’

 

January 2018 Update & Hero of Slang 7: Edward Bradley

Welcome to the fifth and latest update to the online version of Green’s Dictionary of Slang, the first to appear in what is now the second year of the  dictionary’s life as a website.

 

As ever, some statistics: research over the last three months has added 294 new slang terms, 376 entries have been predated as to their currently recorded ‘first use’ and nearly 3,300 citations – including ante-dates, inter-dates and post-dates to reflect the continuing use of many terms –  have been uploaded. The database currently offers 54,791 headwords (within which are nested over 133,000 discrete words and phrases, underpinned by a total of 630,000 citations). All of this new material can be seen by subscribers; the changes that are reflected by the predates  are also shown in alterations in the approximate dating used in the absence of citations: for instance ‘late 19C’ to ‘early 19C’, ‘1980s+’ back to ‘1940s+’, and so on. But as ever, for those who want or need to access the detailed heart of the data, we have to recommend a subscription.

 

For an overview, in chronological order, all users of the dictionary can go here. This uses the same software as the Timelines of Slang. As usual the research has focused largely on newspaper databases, notably that held by the British Library, the US Library of Congress and, for Australia, Trove. These, by their nature, tend to look backwards in time, but there is also an on-going accretion of up-to-date slang.

 

New terms are marked in red, ante-dates in blue. The format has been improved: entries now link to the specific part of an entry, its sense and where pertinent its homonym number. Unfortunately the software does not permit click-through access (this is in development) , but users will be able to see which part of an entry has improved.

 

______________________

 

Given the lack of focus on a single area of slang over the past quarter, I offer in place of my usual disquisition, Hero of Slang 7 (slightly augmented from the original version as published on line by the Dabbler in 2011). In this case the star is the Reverend Edward Bradley, best-known by his literary pseudonym ‘Cuthbert Bede’.

 

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October 2017 Update

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Welcome to the fourth and latest update to the online version of Green’s Dictionary of Slang. This represents our first anniversary: just over one year since the site launched in October 2016.

Research over the last three months has added 351 new slang terms, 465 entries have been predated as to their currently recorded ‘first use’ and over 2,300 citations – including ante-dates, inter-dates and post-dates to reflect the continuing use of many terms –  have been uploaded. The database currently offers 54,718 headwords (within which are nested over 133,000 discrete words and phrases, underpinned by a total of 628,000 citations). All of this new material can be seen by subscribers; the changes that are reflected by the predates  are also shown in alterations in the approximate dating used in the absence of citations: for instance ‘late 19C’ to ‘early 19C’, ‘1980s+’ back to ‘1940s+’, and so on. But as ever, for those who want or need to access the detailed heart of the data, we have to recommend a subscription.

For an overview, in chronological order, all users of the dictionary can go here. This uses the same software as the Timelines of Slang. New terms are marked in red, ante-dates in blue.

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GDoS FIRST ANNIVERSARY COMPETITION

To celebrate the First Anniversary since the launch of Green’s Dictionary of Slang in October 2016 we offer a small competition.

The following text comes from a pamphlet The New Sprees of London, or, A guide to all the flash cribs of the metropolis detailed in a night’s spree of Harry Flashton and his cousin Giles : in this valuable work will be found general maxims for a night’s spree, … peep into the night houses from west to east, … description of the cadgers’ palace …, list of accommodation houses, … economical calculations of the expense of a night’s spree. Published in 1844 it was one of many such publications, a guide to ‘low life’ amusements in the capital. Harry and Giles tip their tiles to the pioneers of such exploits: Pierce Egan’s Tom and Jerry (and their pal Bob Logic). And like Egan’s best-seller, Life in London, the New Sprees was keen to demonstrate a through knowledge of current slang as proof of its authenticity. In this introduction the anonymous author addresses his readers directly:

 

new-sprees-1844-gdos-sub-competition

There are approximately 70 slang terms here (some italicised, some in roman). For the purposes of our competition, the challenge is to ‘translate’ them all into standard English and, if possible, thereby to rewrite the text ‘in English’. If a translation proves too much, then a simple list will pass muster.

All the terms should be available in the free version of GDoS. If any have escaped, then try a bit of educated guesswork – it’s what slang researchers have to do all the time. (The spelling is inevitably shaky: manty, line 18, for instance, is in fact nanty as in line 2).

The fullest translation (and failing that the best shot at a comprehensive list) to arrive by Monday 13 November will receive a one-year free subscription to the dictionary. Five runners-up get a GDoS tote bag. Mr Slang will of course be amenable to bungs, dropsy, freemans, palm oil, straighteners and any other of the 64 terms whereby slang synonymizes the bribe.

Please email your solutions to jg@greensdictofslang.com.

Go it, boots, and cushty bok!

 

 

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